This hypothetical question doesn’t take the harsh realities described below. You begin by saying planetary exploration to Mars will bring new policies. Maybe here on Earth, like what we have in Antarctica, for Mars. The Chinese are likely the first ones to send a manned mission.
In my pessimistic and realist point of view, Mars will never have a human civilization living on it. I almost get tired of saying it over and over again. Mars cannot be terraformed. It is too small and has no organized magnetic field to shield from harmful rays of the sun. Too small means too little gravity, which means to have enough atmospheric pressure for humans would require a much thicker atmosphere than Earth because things, including atmosphere, weigh less on Mars. Because it’s so small, however, it doesn’t have the gravity to hold such an atmosphere and the unhindered cosmic rays from the sun would just blow it away into space.
Mars is not very hospitable and is very, very far away. We may one day have human footprints on Mars, although that is not necessary and very dangerous just so we can say we did. Pretty much everything we want to find out about Mars can be done by our rovers and future rovers.