Is it possible that the universe isn’t expanding and galaxies are moving away from each other at an ever increasing speed because of pressure differentials between where there’s mass and where there isn’t and as they stray further gravity weakens?

Wow. Imaginative question, and the stark answer is… “no.”

Although there is stuff in space, it’s so sparse that it’s a vacuum. There’s no “pressure differentials” in the vacuum of space.

We can’t actually “see” stuff moving apart in the universe, but we perceive it by the shifting of light, indicating to us that stuff is expanding.

Originally, it was thought there was a “big bang” event that started the whole thing into motion and that gravity would slow it down, it would collapse, and the whole thing would repeat forever. We think now this is not the case. Some suppose that black holes may be so compressed that inside they change the laws of physics and create alternate big bangs in parallel universes, but the big crunch idea that says things will slow down and collapse is not favored these days.

So yes, it’s expanding, faster and faster – we think (theorize) based on observations, but it’s not due to pressure. Nobody knows what’s causing it, so we came up with an idea of “Dark energy” that nobody knows what it is to explain an explainable event.

Why can I see the Moon stand still in the sky if it orbits the Earth at a speed of 2,288 miles per hour?

You think that’s fast? Think again. At it’s orbital distance, as you know by watching the moon itself, it takes about 28 days to orbit the earth.

Very roughly speaking, the moon rises about an hour later each day.

That’s why you can still see it.

But you don’t believe this answer because you think the earth is flat.

Partial lunar eclipse
I took this photo from the street in front of my house in Amarillo, Texas, during a partial lunar eclipse. You can see the upper left corner of the moon is darker. The green light in the foreground is a streetlight on Pagoda Drive, Amarillo.

What kind of emergencies do they experience at international space station?

A paint chip traveling a relative speed of 34,000 mph chipped the glass on the ISS. Sometimes known debris causes them to move the station and for the astronauts to take shelter, but small stuff like paint chips are unpredictable. These are the main problems.

Are there photographs of the planets from their surface?

As Bobby Sherman has already pointed out, we have sent spacecraft to the surface of Venus and Mars. We’ve also sent people to our moon and a lander to Titan orbiting Saturn. We’ve retrieved photos from all these places. Here they are.

First, our sister planet Venus (sister because it’s almost the same size as Earth), was photographed by the Russians.

Next, Mars has been photographed many, many times by our Mars Rovers.

Our moon was photographed by astronauts walking on it:

Titan was imaged by NASA by sending a probe to the surface.

Those are the places we visited on the surface. Of course, we’ve orbited and passed by many other bodies in our solar system, but this is where we have images from the ground.

Do all human beings have the same mind/psyche?

brain-1Yes. That’s why I asked that question.

Well, of course not! We are all different – unique beings. Minute differences in genetic makeup from birth, ancestry, gender, upbringing, chemical makeup of the brain, experiences and consciousness make us all have different minds and psyche.

Is there any habitable exoplanet close to Earth?

Nope. Not-a-one.

Of course, you didn’t say what “close to Earth” means, but even without that, we don’t know of any habitable exoplanets anywhere. We only know of exoplanets that might resemble the approximate size of our planet and within what we envision as the “Goldilocks” zone around a star.

Of those, the nearest system seems to be the Trappist-1 system pictured below.

Now this system is a mere 40 light years away and within our local star group. However, even if we could go over 13 million miles an hour, over sixty times faster than the fastest space vehicle we’ve ever managed to achieve, it would still take over 20,000 years to reach there.

So again, the answer depends on two things: 1) We have no idea if any exoplanet is actually habitable, and 2) “close to Earth” is not very close.

Is that close enough for you?

The galaxy and the universe beyond is way bigger than most people think. “Close” is not very close at all.

Is it possible to make some kind of orbiting station inside Jupiter cloud layer?

In order for an orbit to be sustained it has to keep going around the planet, but if you put the orbit so low it slows down due to atmospheric drag, whether here on Earth or on Jupiter, the orbit will rapidly decay and the orbiting object will fall.

If you want to put something in orbit around Jupiter (or Earth) you’ve got to be basically above the atmosphere.

I say “basically” because in low Earth orbit there is still some atmosphere, though very, very thin. This does create drag and objects in low Earth orbit have a tendency to de-orbit and burn up. Same principles on Jupiter. Altitude is the key. The higher the better.

Furthermore, Jupiter has a huge problem – radiation. It’s ripping apart our Juno spacecraft and it will rip apart anything that gets too close to Jupiter.