How Far Can we Drill into the North Pole?

You do realize that there is no solid land over the North Pole, right? There’s ice floating on the ocean, and the ice sheet moves around as it floats. Underneath the ice there is the ocean.

Therefore, to drill into the North Pole you could just drill a hole through the ice until you hit water, or go to the bottom of the ocean and start drilling on the ocean floor.

There’s no specific reason to do so, however, and doing so would be pretty fruitless.

The North Pole has been reached by walking, by ice-breaker ship and by airplane. In the image below, a woman traveling on the Russian nuclear icebreaker Yamal holds a sign marking the North Pole, however, because the ice drifts, the sign also drifted away from the pole.

Sadly, there’s no Santa at the North Pole.

On Board

Getting on board. I don’t think some people ever get on board the scientific bandwagon.
We have in this world a diverse group of people.
Religions. We have people of all different religions, for example. Many of them accept a non-scientific view of how the Earth was created, or the age of the Earth. I don’t know how they rationalize their viewpoints which contradicts science other than to totally ignore science. Oddly, they all use smartphones connected to the internet and electric light bulbs and flying airplanes and driving cars all created by science.
Flat Earth. There are not many of them but they are a growing number. People who watch YouTube videos and fake science. Many of them are looking for a conspiracy everywhere including World politicians! The ultimate conspiracy theory? They lied to us all along! The Earth is flat. NASA is lying!

Seeing London From Long Island with a Telescope

Someone from the Flat Earth Society has countered a statement I made about Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana.
I said that because of the curvature of the earth you cannot see New Orleans from the North Shore of the lake. This person has written to me that with a powerful enough telescope you can see downtown New Orleans from the North Shore of the lake. Therefore, he says, the Earth is flat.
I have nothing to say to this poor fool. Apparently if you have a strong enough telescope you can stand on Long Island and see London!

Is there a scientist who believes that the earth is flat?

That depends how far you would go to define someone as “scientist.”
There’s no scientific qualification for being a scientist, so in that sense anyone who believes the world is flat could be called a scientist.
You might want to ask what the person’s qualifications are. For example, I’m an educated man. Been around the world a few times. Studied physics in college. I’m not a scientist, though. I’m a layman. So is the person a PhD? A doctor? Do they have a Bachelor of Science degree? Did they go to college even? Did they major in chemistry, physics, astronomy, astrology, astrophysics, orbitology, volcanology, geology, geometry, anything of that nature? Mathematics, statistics, theoretical physics? Do they have anything other than their claim they are a scientist to back up the claim?
I would guess there are not many, if any, real scientists that believe the Earth is flat.

The Earth is Flat

The Earth is flat, at least according to the Flat Earth Society. Although officially they have only about 500 members, the postings and YouTube videos have pulled in some secret admirers that believe. Because it’s true.
The Earth is flat.
It’s always been flat. The governments of the world, the astronauts who claim they went to the moon and NASA are all covering up the truth. The north pole is at the center of the disk shaped Earth, and Antarctica is a wall of ice that surrounds the outer edge of the disk and prevents people from going further.
What happens when you get to the edge? Do you fall off? As far as I understand, no. There’s a dome over the top of the whole thing and you’d run into the dome at the outer edge, because
The Earth is flat.
It is the conspiracy of conspiracies. The biggest cover-up of them all. Look it up on the Internet. They wouldn’t put it on the Internet if it wasn’t true.
If it says “conspiracy” then it simply has to be real. Here are the top 10 conspiracy theories that people actually believe:

  1. The moon landing was fake.
  2. Hitler is alive and was involved with the attack on 9/11.
  3. Dungeons and Dragons is a cult.
  4. Paul McCartney died and was replaced by an impersonator.
  5. Our world leaders are lizard people.
  6. The CIA created AIDS.
  7. The 27 Club. A wide selection of musicians died at the age of 27, including Kurt Cobain, Amy Winehouse, Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin and Jim Morrison. The number 27 hold otherworldly power over the music industry inviting the biggest stars to die at 27 years old.
  8. The Middle Ages didn’t exist.
  9. The Jews created the Holocaust. Hitler was planted in Germany by evil Jews and his acts during WWII were Hitler following orders from his bosses.
  10. Obama was a Muslim, wasn’t born in America, could control the weather and had a mosque in the White House.

Notice that “the Earth is Flat” isn’t in the top ten. You know why? Because this conspiracy is so big and we’ve all been brainwashed since children, that even conspiracy theorists have trouble accepting the fact
The Earth is flat.
What do you think?

The Future Yet to Be

What was envisioned didn’t happen and what wasn’t envisioned happened instead – and it was better.

We humans are a hopeful bunch, the civilized ones among us.
We dream of a wondrous future and stop not to realize we have now what wasn’t predicted at all.
Here is a list of items I see for the near future. You may be surprised or may even disagree, but these are very realistic expectations.

  • Do not expect we’ll terraform Mars and establish settlements there. Do expect more orbiters and robotic machines and equipment in space to discover more about who we are and where we came from.

  • Do not expect AI to lead us to self aware thinking machines. Do expect amazing advancements in tech we cannot presently imagine.

  • Do not expect intelligent alien life to be discovered or that ancient aliens once visited Earth. Do expect an ongoing search for evidence life may have evolved elsewhere.

  • Do not expect conspiracy theories to go away. Do expect science to advance our understanding of the universe around us.

If the Earth is spherical, then why has no one ever taken on any monetary flat Earth challenges?

An open $8250 challenge to anyone which can scientifically verify in two new experiments that either the earth is moving or that there is measurable curvature.

by Ron Wagner, (Wagner Grand Music Boxes)

I will give you four solutions to this challenge, each of which lets you SEE IT for yourself. No need for you to trust or believe science. I’ll SHOW you.

BUT FIRST, HERE’S AN OFFER: Bring the $8,250 in cash and fly into Baltimore (BWI). I will pick you up with $17,500 of my own cash (I’m giving you two-to-one odds plus $1,000 to cover your airfare in case I’m wrong and Earth turns out to be flat).

I will drive us down to Deale, Maryland on the Chesapeake Bay and we’ll go out in my sailboat and I will demonstrate “Solution One” to you.

SOLUTION ONE, NAUTICAL DIPPING: There’s a centuries-old nautical navigation formula that’s used by sailors in a process called “dipping a lighthouse.” It wouldn’t work if Earth wasn’t round.

  • The formula: 1.17 x the square root of the height of your eye (in feet) above the water = NM (nautical miles to the horizon).

Example: On a boat deck, your eye is 9 feet above the surface of the water. And you’re looking for a lighthouse, which the chart shows as having a light 100 feet above the water. If you could see the water at the base of the lighthouse, you’d just need to run the formula once.

  • Square root of 9 is 3. Plug that into the formula: 1.17 x 3 = 3.51 NM.

But lighthouses are up on land and are tall due to the curvature of the Earth. If the light sat at water height, sailors could be dangerously close to land before it came into view over the horizon. (You’ve heard of a “horizon,” right?)

So you run the formula a second time to account for the height of the light above the water, which is shown on nautical charts, then you add the two distances.

  • Square root of 100 is 10. Plug that into the formula: 1.17 x 10 = 10.71 NM.
  • Add 3.51 NM + 10.71 NM = 14.22 NM total to the light.
  • Then as you approach land, you look in the direction of the lighthouse until the instant you see the light and at that instant you are 14.22 NM from the light.

We will use my GPS to prove this distance. Here’s an exaggerated image.

  • If the Earth were flat you could see a Virginia lighthouse from the coast of France if you had a telescope of sufficient power.

Most people think lighthouses exist to warn sailors so they won’t crash into the shore. But the primary use for them was to determine an exact distance to the shore as old ships approached. At the instant of the first “dip” of the light, they got a precise distance fix right when they most needed it.

Dipping is also useful for coastal sailing so the boat can constantly check its distance from land.

SOLUTION TWO, YOU DON’T NEED A BOAT: If you don’t have $8,250 plus airfare to lose, you could do this on your own in an ocean front hotel before you bring me your money.

Ride the elevator to the top floor and spot the base of some distant object that is right on the horizon on the water. Check a map to find the distance to that object.

Run the formula based on your height above the water in the hotel, which will confirm the formula.

Now take the elevator to the lobby, walk out front and notice that you no longer see the object.

  • If the Earth were flat, you see exactly the same amount of the object from the shore or from the top of a 20-story hotel.

SOLUTION THREE, NO MATH NEEDED: I’m a former U. S. Air Force pilot and I’ve flown USAF jets high enough to see the curvature of the Earth. Too bad the Concorde is no longer flying because you could sip champaign while seeing it from a passenger seat window.

But you can still get up there and see for yourself!

Several companies offer rides in former military jets. Google around and find one, call them, and tell them you have $8,250 to spend. They’ll rocket you up to where the sky turns purple, then dark purple, then goes black. And you’ll see the curvature.

SOLUTION FOUR, THE BEST: But soon, for a few million dollars, even YOU will be able to undeniably see the curvature of the Earth, once Space X, et al, finally gives us private space rides. As you rise into orbit around the Earth, you’ll finally get it. Undeniably get it. Undeniably.

BUT I WANT THAT PRIZE MONEY: Rather than blow $8,250 on a jet ride, just bring it in cash to BWI. We’ll hire a “second” (maybe an off-duty police officer, anyone we both would trust) who will hold the cash to ensure my prize money won’t run away once I prove it. That extra cash would offset my sailing expenses for the coming season, when I’m out dipping lighthouses on the Chesapeake.

I gotta be honest, though: The jet ride would be a LOT more fun. And if you’re not passed out or puking the whole time, you’d see the curvature yourself.

EARTH IS AN OBLATE SPHEROID: I offer this closing comment just in case this is a trick question. The truth is that the Earth is NOT, in fact, spherical. So, in that sense you are absolutely correct. If the $8,250 prize is to be awarded to someone who proves “the Earth is a sphere,” well, no one would collect because the Earth is, in fact, an “oblate spheroid.” It is not a true sphere.

Because the surface of the Earth is spinning at just over 1,000 miles per hour, the centrifugal force causes it to bulge at the equator. The Earth is 24,874 miles in circumference if you measure the length of the equator. But it is 24,860 miles if you measure the circumference through the poles.

I was on the equator several times this month and I could see the bulge. (Just kidding about seeing the bulge, though I was on the equator.)

How does Flat Earth theory account for the Southern Cross?

Who knows.Why do that flat earth people even exist in this day and age?
I’m still trying to figure out how they see the bridge across Lake Ponchartrain in Louisianna!
In the middle of the drive across the bridge, for 8 miles in every direction, you see nothing but water. The land behind you disappears below the horizon. Eventually you see the tall buildings of New Orleans magically rise up from the water because they are over the horizon.

The world is round. You can prove it to yourself without help from anyone else, just by going for that drive in your car.

 

If aliens exist and the US government knows about them, do you think they would disclose this publicly?

Why? They won’t even disclose whether they have ties with the Russians before, during and after the election! They won’t even disclose tax records!
You ascribe to an x-files theory that the government is capable of a mass coverup of unprescendented scale.
There’s no end to that theory. If you accept that, then we never went to the moon, the earth is flat and they don’t want us to know it, and aliens live among us.
The unfortunate reality, however, is our government is full of bungling fools that can’t even keep Wikileaks from finding out about our secrets!
Do you think Wikileaks might be in on it too?

Do flat earthers believe that Antarctic explorers are all liars?

I’ve watched some of these flat-earth videos for entertainment and education the other day.
These people have taken conspiracy theories to new heights. They don’t even believe the Earth is round, and that there is a mass coverup going on by NASA and all the world governments.
Your question is revealing, however. Why do you think we depend on Antarctic explorers to know Antarctica is a continent? Do you think the only way to know about Antarctica is crunch around in the ice there?
What I wonder is what they think about Lake Pontchartrain.