How quickly could humankind colonize 10 nearest star systems?

Just as soon as we can solve the problem of only going 20 times slower than 1 tenth the speed of light, our fastest speed to date. Sadly, the ability for humans to send humans to other stars will most likely never happen.

If an intelligent alien came to Earth, would it have the same rights as humans?

Well, now that the President is taking away rights from humans who are from alien countries, I’d think it would be worse for an alien coming from another planet. I suspect they would lock the alien up and study it and you’d never hear another word.

How close are we to commercialising space travel? 

We have already commercialized space travel. Private companies are now being paid to resupply the International Space Station on a regular basis, and commercial companies are hiring SpaceX, another commercial company, to place satellites into orbit.

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If aliens in our galaxy are exponentially super advanced, why have they not completely colonized the entire Milky Way by now?

Well, let’s not put the cart before the horse. Right now we don’t know for sure that any life exists anywhere other than Earth. We suppose it does by mathematical calculations, but we haven’t even found a fossil of a microbe from space.

Secondly, suppose there is some super advanced civilization (your use of “exponentially” doesn’t seem to make any sense), the reason they probably haven’t completely colonized the entire Milky Way Galaxy is that for them, as for us, the laws of physics make it pretty much impossible to achieve interstellar travel because of the vast distances involved. And even if they could colonize some surrounding systems by now, it would take light and radio waves 100,000 years to reach us from the other side of the galaxy.

How will space be used for military purposes in the future?

It already is being used for military purposes right now as in spy satellites. Even very recently SpaceX was tasked to launch a U.S. spy satellite into orbit but it exploded and the satellite didn’t make it.

In 1984 a Titan 34D rocket launched the KH-9 and KH-11 satellites for “reconnaissance,” and the DSP-2-6R satellite for missile detection. The list just starts there and goes into the hundreds including many intelligence-gatheringsatellites and so on.

And, by the way, not just by the United States, but other governments as well.

Furthermore, the Chinese government once shot a missile to destroy their own satellite in space just to say the could, and they succeeded, vastly increasing the dangerous debris cloud floating now in orbit. It was a military demonstration.

Why is there a stigma around attempting to discover extraterrestrial life?

There is no stigma. All of science is dedicated to discover extraterrestrial life. We would be completely excited to find even a fossil of a microbe from space because it would be the ultimate affirmation that life can evolve from matter on another world other than Earth. Our best hope at present is to find some kind of life on one of the moons of Jupiter or Saturn, or perhaps some fossils on Mars as of yet undiscovered. We are even spending billions of dollars with the SETI program to listen for radio waves from space!

However, much to the surprise and dismay of scientists, we have yet to discover anything at all.

If time travel is possible, how would we know? Wouldn’t there will be time laws to stop time interference?

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One of Hawking’s arguments in the conjecture is that we are not awash in thousands of time travelers from the future, and therefore time travel is impossible. This argument I find very dubious, and it reminds me very much of the argument that there cannot be intelligences elsewhere in space, because otherwise the Earth would be awash in aliens. I can think half a dozen ways in which we could not be awash in time travelers, and still time travel is possible.”

– Carl Sagan, American astronomer, astrophysicist, and author.