Who would win in a human’s future, artificial super intelligence or incoming alien invasion?

You are not going to like this answer.

Of the two, artificial super intelligence will win because there will never be an incoming alien invasion.

There probably are aliens out there. In fact, it’s 100% sure there are intelligent, space faring aliens.

It’s also true that no one can go the speed of light. It’s also true no one can go even 1% the speed of light. Even if you could it would take thousands of years to reach our nearest star, Alpha Centauri. It would take tens of thousands of years to reach the nearest star system – Trappist 1 – with Earth-like sized planets that probably don’t have any life.

These are not “laws” of physics that can be broken by “aliens” with better technology. This is just the way it is.

Interstellar travel is a myth.

However, AI is already in our smart phones.trapist1

What are the odds of another planet having human life forms?

Some will say “absolutely some other planets have human life forms because an infinite universe has infinite possibilities.”

I will say differently. The human form has infinite possibilities in it’s evolution and therefore infinity divided by infinity is either none or all. I’ll go with none.

There’s no humans elsewhere, but there are intelligent, space faring species out there.

A space ship traveling toward a star system at 99% the speed of light 100 light years away, at what point will they have to start slowing down?

The U.S.S. Enterprise boldly traveled where no person had gone before and boldly goes where no person will ever go in the future. Interstellar travel just isn’t in the cards for humanity because of the distances and the universal speed limit.

A thoughtful question. No simple answer but we can give you cool information!

Actually, it doesn’t really matter whether the star you are going to is 100 light years away or 1 light year away. These are just incredible, inconceivable distances, and although 99% the speed of light sounds nice, we’re not going to get even a hundredth of 1 percent the speed of light. We just don’t have that technology now or ever, as you’ll see below!

There would be no fuel that could power a spaceship faster and faster toward the goal. At a certain point acceleration would have to stop. You would need to save half of your fuel for slowing down at the other end.

So what you’d have to do is accelerate until half your fuel is burned. Then wait. If that fuel got you half way, then you’d start the retro burn immediately and it would take the same amount of fuel to slow down. If half your fuel took you 1/10 of the way then you’d have to coast for 8/10ths more then the last 1/10 burn the last of your fuel to slow down. To get you going 99% the speed of light would require an almost infinite amount of fuel according to Einstein’s theory of relativity – and then you’d have to slow down too!

It would be a one way trip and you wouldn’t know until you arrived if there was anything out there that could be habitable.

Our closest star, Alpha Centauri, is about 4.4 light years away. That number “4.4” misleads us to think that’s not very far, but it’s further away than you can imagine, and that’s just the closest star. This is a distance of about 5.88 trillion miles away, and there’s another number we can deal with: 5.88 (trillion miles).

The fastest we’ve ever gone was on July 4, 2016, when the Juno spacecraft, assisted by Jupiter’s gravity got up to approximately 165,000 miles per hour (265,000 km/h), breaking all previous space speed records. But even if we could increase that speed 81 times faster than Juno, even if we somehow could come up with the incredible propulsion to both speed up and slow down, that would give us the fantastic speed of 13.3 million mph! Can you even imagine that speed? That happens to be about 2% the speed of light, and it would take us 2,200 years to get to Alpha Centauri without even taking the acceleration or deceleration into account at all. So maybe about 4 or 5 thousand years each way, what to speak of 100 light years like you are asking about would take about 44,000 years each way at 81 times faster than we’ve ever gone before.

Your question was if we could go 99% the speed of light for 100 light years. You did correctly identify that there would be a period of acceleration and an equal period of deceleration at the other end of the trip, but honestly not even a fraction of 1 percent of the speed of light is ever going to be achievable. The weight of the fuel alone would be impossible to move.

We can’t give a number for an answer because we’re never going to get that fast anyway. I did try to put the distances into perspective. We are all living in the world of science fiction and don’t want to accept the numbers. Interstellar travel isn’t in our future.

Why hasn’t the oceans been thoroughly researched before we attempt to go to Mars?

NASA_Mars_RoverWhile it is true that building a city under the ocean would be easier than going to Mars, going to Mars isn’t going to stop oceanographic research. One does not cancel out the other. It’s not like we are pulling out funds from researching the ocean so we can go to Mars. There are things still to be discovered under the sea. There are things still to be discovered in space. Both will go on because we have billions and billions of people and some people like studying the oceans and some people like studying space!

How can Mars be colonized when it doesn’t have a magnetosphere?

Exactly the disappointing truth. It can’t. Since Mars is too small, the core cooled down long ago and therefore the organized magnetosphere doesn’t exist. Put as much atmosphere you want and it will still be blown away and not protect us from dangerous rays from the sun. We can only “colonize” the same way we “colonized” the Moon or the International Space Station: staying indoors!

Mars outpost near mesa
This image suggests how such a martian “motor home” might be realized. Providing transportation and housing for a crew of two to four human explorers, this pressurized rover would offer stability, visibility, storage, and a means for generating power for locomotion and electrical systems. A pair of wing-like solar arrays atop the rover help to meet some of the energy needs, and the transparent windshield ports have been coated to shield the interior from ultraviolet light and provide additional visual contrast to Mars’ rust-colored landscape.

Why is there only an up and down on Earth and not out in space? 

There’s no gravity in space. On a planet like ours, down is always toward the center of gravity.  Up is always the opposite of the center of gravity. Drop a ball, it goes down. Up is the opposite.

In space if you let go of a ball it stays where you let go of it (as long as you weren’t moving your hand, that is.)

Your personal sense of up and down is caused by your inner ear. In space, however, sometimes people feel sick because it feels like they’re falling all the time (and in fact, when in orbit you are falling all the time).

Space Shuttle and the Horses Ass

Did you know…. The gauge for the U.S. railways is 4 feet eight and a half inches. That’s a weird number. It also, as we shall see, has relevance to the now retired U.S. Space Shuttle program and the horses ass. This post was copied from a Facebook page.

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Why was that railway gauge used for train tracks in America? Well, because that‘s the way they built them in England, and English engineers designed the first US railroads.

Why did the English build them like that?
Because the first rail lines were built by the same people who built the wagon tramways, and that’s the gauge they used.

So, why did ‘they’ use that gauge then?
Because the people who built the tramways used the same jigs and tools that they had used for building wagons, which used that same wheel spacing.

Why did the wagons have that particular odd wheel spacing?
Well, if they tried to use any other spacing, the wagon wheels would break more often on some of the old, long distance roads in England . You see, that’s the spacing of the wheel ruts.

So who built those old rutted roads?
Imperial Rome built the first long distance roads in Europe (including England ) for their legions. Those roads have been used ever since.

And what about the ruts in the roads?
Roman war chariots formed the initial ruts, which everyone else had to match or run the risk of destroying their wagon wheels. Since the chariots were made for Imperial Rome , they were all alike in the matter of wheel spacing. Therefore the United States standard railroad gauge of 4 feet, 8.5 inches is derived from the original specifications for an Imperial Roman war chariot. Bureaucracies live forever.

So the next time you are handed a specification/procedure/process and wonder ‘What horse’s ass came up with this?’, you may be exactly right. Imperial Roman army chariots were made just wide enough to accommodate the rear ends of two war horses. (Two horses’ asses.)

Now, the twist to the story:

When you see a Space Shuttle sitting on its launch pad, there are two big booster rockets attached to the sides of the main fuel tank. These are solid rocket boosters, or SRBs. The SRBs are made by Thiokol at their factory in Utah . The engineers who designed the SRBs would have preferred to make them a bit fatter, but the SRBs had to be shipped by train from the factory to the launch site. The railroad line from the factory happens to run through a tunnel in the mountains, and the SRBs had to fit through that tunnel. The tunnel is slightly wider than the railroad track, and the railroad track, as you now know, is about as wide as two horses’ behinds.

So, a major Space Shuttle design feature, of what is arguably the world’s most advanced transportation system, was determined over two thousand years ago by the width of a horse’s ass. And you thought being a horse’s ass wasn’t important? Ancient horse’s asses control almost everything and….

CURRENT Horses Asses are controlling everything else.

The US standard railroad gauge (distance between the rails) is 4 feet, 8.5 inches. That’s an exceedingly odd number.