Did we “accidentally” bring new bacteria to the moon or Mars via our space exploration programs?

Probably, and that’s why terraforming is a bad idea. Inside the scientifically minded community, there are two distinct ideas.
  1. Don’t contaminate. Leave whatever planet it happens to be in the original pristine condition so we can study it. (This is the predominant, tree hugging concept.)
  2. Screw number 1. Terraform the planet. Make it livable for humans, existing organisms, if they exist at all, be damned.

That being said, we do try all we can not to contaminate planets we send probes to even though some microorganisms may have made it through.

At present, and probably rightly so, NASA does not want to introduce organisms to other planets – or visa versa – introduce to Earth organisms from other planets on Earth. We may have already failed, but we still try.

How many satellites are there, and which are there on each planet?

If you count all the little nuts, bolts, loose wrenches and pieces of demolished satellites as satellites, then there’s a whole lot of junk floating around Earth. Thousands of pieces that pose a hazard.
spacejunk

Around the moon we have about three functioning spacecraft but have launched far more than that that have, over time, gone dead – perhaps crashed to the surface of the moon. Then we have the odd Juno spacecraft around Jupiter, the voyagers I and II and so on. We’ve put more space junk up there then anything else. This is a fairly accurate artist’s rendition of space junk around Earth.

The Russians have put several probes on Venus, the Americans and Europeans put a probe on Titan, we have probes on Mars, we flew a probe by Pluto and orbited Saturn for a long while before crashing deliberately. We presently have, as mentioned, the Juno spacecraft around Jupiter. We have hundreds of functioning satellites in orbit around Earth.

What is combined single directional speed of earth rotation, Earth orbit, solar system transit, galactic spin and transit, and universal expansion?

Yes, we’re all over the place. Speed is relative. The sun orbits the galactic center at about 514,000 mph (143 mi/s) within its trajectory around the galactic center, but as we orbit the sun sometimes the Earth speeds up or slows down relative to the galactic center. Round and round we go. It’s kind of like this amusement park ride!

Do you believe NASA when they state that they destroyed the technology to return to the moon?

NASA never said anything like that. What did happen was that when the Apollo program was shut down, the building that the Apollo’s were built in was retooled for newer technology. In the process, some parts were thrown away because they were outdated and better stuff was available.
The reason we stopped going to the moon, at the time, was the Vietnam War. Congress needed to cut NASA’s budget to finance the war. After the near disaster of Apollo 13 and waning public interest, the money wasn’t there for continuing along that line.
Times have changed. The moon is a target once again. In the meantime, we have placed quite a few satellites in orbit around the moon. Due to problems with gravity variances on the moon, most of them have fallen from orbit and crashed on the moon’s surface or have become dead because of loss of power. However, there are at least three satellites right now that are active and in orbit around the moon. They are the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), as well as the two ARTEMIS probes, which are functioning.
So not only did NASA not lose the technology, but we’ve been sending stuff to the moon for awhile. It’s just that we haven’t sent people in awhile.

What are the similarities and differences between planets and dwarf planets?

A dwarf planet is usually a spherical body resembling a small planet.

Objects in space are round because of their gravity. If they aren’t big enough, they don’t have enough gravity to crush them into ball shape. This asteroid, which came from outside our solar system system recently, looks like a big slab.

So both planets and dwarf planets are round. Asteroids not so much.

The difference is that planets clear the path around the sun, drawing in all nearby objects. Dwarf planets live their lives without clearing everything out of the way (they do clear some stuff, and that’s why there are craters on Pluto.) As such, dwarf planets tend to dwell in asteroid belts.

The thing about Pluto is that there are similar sized objects floating all around out there, so either you’re going to have to name hundreds of new planets or just have eight. All of the dwarf planets are smaller than our smallest planet, Mercury as the image below shows.

Eris is larger than Pluto. It’s part of the asteroid belt orbiting the sun. In fact, Pluto is so small, it is smaller than our moon as you can see below.

So the similarity of the planets and the dwarf planets are they are both mostly round because they have sufficient gravity to flatten their own surfaces into a sphere. The differences are that planets are big enough to clear the whole region of space where they orbit the sun whereas dwarf planets do not.

Is Earth mentioned in the Star Wars universe?

Everybody wants to jump on this bandwagon and throw in their two cents. Remember: Star Wars took place A long, long time ago in a galaxy far, far away.
Star Wars happened way in the past, not the future, perhaps even before the existence of Earth. Furthermore, it happened in a very distant galaxy, perhaps millions or billions of light years away.
It’s simply a modern miracle that we can watch the story unfold before us on the big screen and your Blu-Ray player! Earth is not mentioned, and if it were, the people of Earth during those days would have been primitive indeed, if even we had evolved into homo-sapiens at that point in time.

How many main longitudes are there in the earth?

The answer is infinite. It’s like asking how many pieces can slice out of a pie. Or like asking if I take a pie and eat half of what’s there each day, will I ever finish the pie?
Longitude merely slices the planet into vertical pieces. You can have an infinite number of those slices. Principally, any sphere or circle has 360 degrees. Each degree is a longitude, and any slice thereof. If fact, wherever you stand on Earth is a longitude, and you can look it up with certain apps on your smart phone.
But in terms of whole numbers, a circle has 360 degrees. Each degree has 60 minutes. Kinda like a big clock.

What would happen if NASA had the U.S. Military's budget?

We spend 600 billion dollars every year on the military. What would happen if NASA had that kind of money? Here’s a very cool YouTube video that I love to watch!
[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=chLOgj8xjx8&w=854&h=480]

Where will people migrate when the planet becomes too populated?

Although some people will say people will migrate to another planet when Earth becomes overpopulated, I will say that people should stop having so many children. If we don’t do something to save this planet, what’s to stop us from wrecking the next place?
In reality, it’s not that we, as humans, are leaving too big a footprint as we stomp the Earth down, drive species into extinction and destroy the environment. We can live like kings and queens, enjoying all the great benefits of modern life. The problem is that we are already overpopulated. Couples need to restrict the number of their children to two or less. Sadly, though, that will never happen.

Are we all aliens from space?

People wonder and sometimes ask what if we were all actually descendants from Aliens.
While there is no real scientific evidence to suggest that aliens came here to propagate life on Earth, and even less likely that aliens could travel through Interstellar space, there is an argument for saying that we are all aliens!
It turns out that we are all made of Stardust generated from Supernova explosions generated a long time ago in outer space! Our sun is a second-generation sun and the planets that orbit our sun are made of coalesced dust that was excreted by the stars. You and I are made of nothing but Earth. From dust to dust. We are actually made of entirely alien components.
That’s as alien as you can get, and that’s as alien as you are going to get!